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Complete Welsh: Teach Yourself

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Over half a million people in Wales speak Welsh and many more outside of Wales too, particularly in the Chubut Province of Patagonia. Many of the 12% of Welsh speakers now living in Wales who were not born in Wales have learned Welsh either through self-study courses such as this one or by attending classes. Almost 20,000 adults now attend classes each year and, if you are attending such a course, you will find Complete Welsh a valuable revision source. If you have no previous knowledge of Welsh, however, you will also find this course a very useful and practical introduction to the language.

Our focus is very much on the language as it is spoken today and our aim is to help you interact with Welsh speakers in day-to-day situations such as talking about your family and your likes and dislikes, going out for a meal, asking for directions and arranging a holiday. Practice is graded so that exercises which require mainly recognition come first. As you learn more and become more confident, you will be encouraged to write and speak the language yourself. By the end of the course you will be able to handle realistic everyday events and happenings with ease, as well as having a basic understanding of the way Welsh works, so that you can adapt your knowledge to other appropriate situations.

Here are some basic words and phrases to start you on your way! Sut mae? ( Hello ); Catrin dw i ( I’m Catrin ) ; Os gwelwch yn dda ( Please ); Diolch ( Thanks ); Gaf i baned o de? ( Can I have a cup of tea? ); Dim problem! ( No worries! ); Croeso ( You’re welcome ); Faint yw’r coffi? ( How much is the coffee? ). Welsh is an easy language to learn; it is phonetic and many words sound like English words. Croeso i’r Gymraeg! Welcome to Welsh!

Insights

  • There is no Welsh word for ‘a’; dysgwr means a learner as well as learner and dysgwr ydw i means I am a learner. Dysgwr nerfus! Adjectives usually follow the words they are describing in Welsh. Look at the position of the adjectives nerfus and da (good): Noun Adjective dysgwr nerfus bore da prynhawn da iawn. Adjectives following feminine singular nouns mutate softly: noswaith dda. (See the mutation chart at the beginning of the book).
  • The verb usually comes first in a Welsh sentence. Yn links the verb–noun or adjective to the subject and sometimes corresponds to ‘ing’ in English. After a vowel, yn is reduced to ‘n. Adjectives and nouns, except those beginning with ‘ll’ and ‘rh’, mutate softly after the link word yn or ‘n. Look at the grid below: Verb Subject Yn Verb–noun/adjective Meaning mae Gethin yn hapus Gethin is happy mae e ‘n llawn It/he is full dw i ‘n cerdded I am walking mae hi ‘n araf She is slow. The word order can be quite tricky if you are not used to beginning sentences with a verb. Practise by replacing the words in the grid with other words from the unit e.g. she is walking; Sioned is coming, etc. Don’t be afraid of using words from the mini dictionary at the end of the book.
  • Everyone learns in a different way. Some people learn by connecting language with actions, for example, miming some words when saying them like walking when saying cerdded. Although only Welsh words mutate, one way of remembering the soft mutation after o is to mutate non-Welsh place names, saying Dw i’n dod o Dunbridge Wells is a good way of remembering that T becomes D after o.
  • In front of consonants, yr (the) becomes y : y dosbarth. After vowels, yr becomes ‘r : o’r coleg ( from the college ). Yr is used if a vowel or the letter ‘h’ follows: yr eliffant, the elephant, yr wy, the egg, yr haf, the summer. All feminine singular nouns mutate softly after y : y ferch, the girl. Dw i’n siarad Gwyddeleg yn rhugl. Yn is used in the same way as -ly in English to form an adverb from an adjective. An adverb describes the way in which something is done: quickly, slowly, loudly. In the example Dych chi’n siarad Cymraeg yn dda - You speak Welsh well , yn dda describes the way in which you speak Welsh.
  • Unlike English, numbers are followed by a singular noun in Welsh: pedwar mab four sons wyth merch eight daughters un cwrs one course. In Deialog 1, you will have noticed that Matthew says that he speaks ‘dwy iaith arall’. The numbers dau, tri and pedwar have feminine forms. These forms, dwy (2), tair (3) and pedair (4) are used with feminine nouns. Dwy is used with the word iaith, because iaith is a feminine noun. The feminine form of the number is not used in telephone numbers: dwy Americanes two American women tair merch three daughters pedair brechdan four sandwiches. Both dau and dwy cause a soft mutation: dau fab dwy ferch dau gwrs dwy frechdan. Pump and chwech become pum and chwe before nouns. You will often hear the full forms, especially in South Wales: pum mab chwe merch pum cwrs chwe bore pum paned chwe wy. Both tri and chwe cause an aspirate mutation. This is often omitted in everyday speech. tri Chymro chwe chwrs tri phaned chwe phaned tri thiwtor chwe thiwtor.
  • When you are counting things above 10, it is usual to use the pattern: number + o + plural noun, e.g. tri deg dau o ganolfannau, pedwar deg tri o golegau.
  • The pattern used to say you have something in Welsh is: Mae ______ ‘da fi I have a ______ Mae ffôn ‘da fi. I have a phone. ‘da is the shortened form of gyda. Mae ffôn ‘da fi literally means There is a phone with me. To say ‘he has’, ‘she has’, ‘we have’, etc., fi (me) is changed for the appropriate personal pronoun. Personal pronouns: fi me fe he ni we nhw they ti you (fam.) hi she chi you Mae ffôn ‘da fi - I have a phone. Mae fideo ‘da ti - You have a video (fam.) Mae paned o de ‘da fe - He has a cup of tea. Mae’r manylion ‘da hi - She has the details. Mae mab ‘da ni - We have a son. Mae enw diddorol ‘da chi - You have an interesting name. Mae dwy ferch ‘da nhw - They have two daughters.
  • As you saw in Unit 1, there is no one word for either yes or no in Welsh. Questions beginning with oes are answered by saying either Oes (yes) or Nac oes (no): Oes plant ‘da chi? - Have you got any children? Oes, mae dau fab ‘da fi - Yes, I have two sons. Oes ty ‘da fe? - Has he got a house? Oes, mae ty mawr ‘da fe - Yes, he has a big house. Oes ci ‘da fe? - Has he got a dog? Nac oes, does dim ci ‘da fe - No, he hasn’t got a dog. There is no Welsh word for 'any' or 'some' in phrases like 'have you got any children?' or 'do you want some milk?'.
  • Note the following useful expressions which use gyda/’da: Mae’n ddrwg ‘da fi - I’m sorry. Mae’n dda ‘da fi - I’m pleased. Does dim ots ‘da fe (often shortened to ‘sdim ots)- He doesn’t mind. Does dim syniad ‘da fi - I’ve no idea. Gen i - In some areas of Wales, especially in the North, you will hear these forms in place of gyda/’da: gen i gynnon ni gen ti gynnoch chi gynno fo gynnyn nhw gynni hi. Mae gen i ddwy ferch - I have two daughters. Mae gynno fo dri mab - He has three sons. Mae gynnon ni dy mawr - We have a big house. As you can see from these examples, gen i etc. is placed straight after mae. When used in this position, gen i, gen ti etc. are followed by a soft mutation. Regional differences are discussed in more detail in Appendix 1.
  • In Welsh, phrases such as ‘Elen’s house’, ‘Gwennie’s dog’ and ‘Elen’s phone number’, ‘the… of…’ are expressed by placing the thing which is possessed in front of the possessor: ty Elen ci Gwennie rhif ffôn Elen. Remember the rule: ‘What is it?’ and ‘Who has it?’, gwraig Steffan - Steffan’s wife, Maer Califfornia - The mayor of California rhif ffôn y canolfan - The phone number of the centre, festri ‘r capel - The chapel vestry/the vestry of the chapel.
  • Sy is a form of the present tense of bod. Sy is used after pwy, beth, faint o, sawl, pa, and pa fath o when it is followed by a verb-noun, an adjective or a preposition: Pwy sy’n gweithio? Faint sy’n dod? Beth sy’n ddiddorol? Sawl tiwtor sy ar y cwrs. Sy’n can also mean who is, which is. Sy is the shortened version of sydd.
  • In this unit we will be using the following verb to talk about people and their interests: dw i (I am), ydw i? (am I?), dw i ddim (I’m not), rwyt ti (you are), wyt ti? (are you?), dwyt ti ddim (you’re not), mae e (he is), ydy e? (is he?), dyw e ddim (he’s not), mae hi (she is), ydy hi? (is she?), dyw hi ddim (she’s not), dyn ni (we are), dyn ni? (are we?), dyn ni ddim (we’re not), dych chi (you are), dych chi? (are you?), dych chi ddim (you’re not), maen nhw (they are), dyn nhw? (are they?), dyn nhw ddim (they’re not). In English, there are three ways of expressing the present tense, i.e. I read, I am reading, I do read. In Welsh, these are all expressed in the same way: Dw i’n darllen. Dych chi’n darllen? Do you read? Are you reading? You will also have noticed yw in sentences such as Beth yw’ch rhif ffôn chi? Pwy yw tad David? Yw is used when two nouns refer to the same thing or have the same identity: Ysgrifenyddes yw hi. You might also hear ydy : Beth ydy’ch rhif ffôn chi? Beth ydy’ch enw chi? Ysgrifenyddes ydy hi. Even when the subject of a sentence is plural (Mae’r plant yn merlota; mae’r dysgwyr yn y dosbarth), the verb used is mae, the third person singular.
  • You will have noticed the different letter changes after the pronouns in the last examples. (We look at pronouns again in Unit 10.) Both ei (her) and eu (their) cause the letter ‘h’ to be placed in front of a vowel: ei horen hi (her orange); eu horen nhw (their orange).
  • As well as meaning work, gwaith can also mean time. Although it is masculine when meaning work, it is feminine when it means time and therefore uses the feminine numbers dwy, tair and pedair. Adverbs which denote time mutate softly. bob dydd Iau - every Thursday, bob penwythnos - every weekend, ddwywaith yr wythnos - twice a week.
  • Mewn, as you saw in Unit 1, means ‘in’ and is followed by an indefinite noun: Oes diddordeb ‘da ti mewn criced? (in general) Yn is used with definite nouns: Oes diddordeb ‘da ti yn y criced? (i.e. a particular match) Definite: a word preceded by either y, a proper name (Cardiff, Sam), a pronoun (me, her) or a possessive pronoun (my, her). A soft mutation follows the construction: mae’n gas ‘da fi and mae’n well ‘da fi : Mae’n gas ‘da fi griced - I hate cricket. Mae’n well ‘da hi ferlota - She prefers pony trekking.
  • Sometimes you say ‘to the’ in Welsh where you say only ‘to’ in English. The main examples are: i’r ysgol - to school, i’r eglwys - to church, i’r capel - to chapel, i’r dref - to town, i’r dosbarth - to class, i’r gwely - to bed, i’r ysbyty - to hospital. Y is also used when you would normally say ‘in’ in English. You would use yn y rather than just yn with the words just listed: yn yr ysgol - at school, yn yr eglwys - in church etc.
  • In Welsh, if you are talking about a particular day, there is no need to use the word ar (on): Ble dych chi’n mynd ddydd Llun? Where are you going on Monday? (on a specific Monday) By putting ar in front of a day of the week, you are saying that you go somewhere or do something on that day every week: ar ddydd Llun (on Mondays): Dw i’n mynd i nofio ar ddydd Gwener - I go swimming on Fridays.
  • The other main adjectives that come before the noun are hen (old), unig (only) and prif (main): hen lyfr - an old book; unig ddiddordeb - only interest; prif ddiddordeb - main hobby, main interest.
  • When using more than one adjective to describe something, it is usual to refer to size first: llygaid mawr gwyrdd - large green eyes.
  • Wedi is used with the present tense to express have: Dw i’n mynd - I am going. Dw i wedi mynd - I have gone. We look at wedi in more detail in Unit 6.
  • When discussing the weather the feminine forms of the verb bod are used: Mae hi’n stormus heddiw - It is stormy today. Bydd hi’n oer yfory - It will be cold tomorrow. Mae hi’n is often contracted to mae’n: Mae’n stormus heddiw. Yr/y precedes the names of the seasons in Welsh: yr haf summer yr hydref autumn y gaeaf winter y gwanwyn spring. In conversational Welsh you are likely to hear people using the immediate future: Mae’n mynd i fwrw glaw - It is going to rain. Mae’n mynd i fwrw cesair - It is going to hail.
  • Yn (in) causes the nasal mutation. There is an example of this when Tom says in Unit 2 that he is a solicitor, yng Nghaerdydd. Look at the letter changes on the mutation chart at the beginning of the book. The preposition yn (in) is never shortened. Yn itself changes its sound before m, mh, ng and ngh to be like the sound it creates: Portmeirion ym Mh ortmeirion Caerfyrddin yng Ngh aerfyrddin Bangor ym M angor Gwynedd yng N gwynedd Tywyn yn Nh ywyn Dolgellau yn N olgellau.
  • The verb mae (is) follows ble, pam, pryd and sut but after beth and pwy, ydy is normally used: Ble mae’r ystafell? but Pwy ydy’r tiwtor?
  • Arall/eraill: Both these words mean 'other'. Arall is used with singular nouns and eraill with plural nouns: y lliw arall - the other colour, y lliwiau eraill - the other colours, ffrog arall - another dress, ffrogiau eraill - other dresses. As you can see from the above, arall can also have the meaning 'another'.
  • You have already seen how to say this weekend: y penwythnos ‘ma; and this afternoon : y bore ‘ma in Unit 5. To say ‘this________’, y is placed in front of the word and ‘ma after it: yr arian ‘ma - this money, y bwyty ‘ma - this restaurant, y capel ‘ma - this chapel. With plural nouns, y _________ ‘ma takes the meaning ‘these_________’: y chwaraeon ‘ma these sports , y dramâu ‘ma - these plays. To say ‘that ___________,’ y is placed in front of the noun and ‘na after it: yr ystafell ‘na - that room, y rhaglen ‘na that programme, yr ysbyty ‘na - that hospital. With plural nouns, y _________ ‘na takes the meaning ‘those___________’: y meintiau ‘na - those sizes , y sglodion ‘na - those chips. The Welsh word for ‘all’ is i gyd, which comes after the noun: y plant i gyd - all the children, fy chwiorydd i gyd - all my sisters.
  • Earlier in this unit we introduced the pattern y _____ ‘ma to express ‘this ______’. Hwn and hon also mean this in Welsh. Hwn is used with masculine nouns and hon is used with feminine nouns: y tocyn hwn - this ticket, y rhaglen hon - this programme. Unlike the pattern y ______ ‘ma, hwn and hon can be used without referring to the name of the object: Faint yw hwn? - How much is this?, Faint yw hon? - How much is this?, Mae hwn yn dda - This is good. Hwnna/honna: To say ‘that one’ the words hwnna and honna are used. Hwnna is used with masculine nouns and honna with feminine nouns. The words hyn (this) and hynny (that) are used when referring to something abstract, such as news, events and sayings: Ydy e wedi gwneud hynny? - Has he done that?, Beth rwyt ti’n ei feddwl am hyn? - What do you think about this?. Y rhain means ‘these’ and is used when you do not name the object: Faint yw’r rhain? - How much are these?. Y rheina means ‘those’ and is also used when you do not name the object: Faint yw’r rheina? - How much are those?
  • In expressions of price/quantity, y is used where English requires ‘a’: y dwsin - a dozen, y cilo - a kilo, y bag/paced - a bag/packet, y pwys a - pound, y botel - a bottle, y litr - a litre, y bocs - a box, y peint - a pint. For example, 53c y botel - 53p a bottle, 78c y litr - 78p a litre.
  • Na (than) becomes nag before vowels: Mae Tom yn dalach nag Elen - Tom is taller than Elen. Na causes an aspirate mutation: Mae cathod yn llai na chwˆn - Cats are smaller than dogs. As you saw in the word rhatach, if an adjective ends in ‘d’, the ‘d’ becomes ‘t’ when you add ach to it: rhad ? rhatach, drud ? drutach ( dear ? dearer ). If an adjective ends in ‘g’, the ‘g’ becomes a ‘c’ and if it ends in ‘b’, the ‘b’ becomes a ‘p’. For example: gwlyb ? gwlypach wet ? wetter teg ? tecach fair ? fairer.
  • Dw i newydd gyrraedd. Newydd is used with the present forms of bod to say something has just happened: Dw i’n cyrraedd - I am arriving. Dw i newydd gyrraedd - I have just arrived. Maen nhw’n chwilio - They are looking. Maen nhw newydd chwilio - They have just looked.
  • All the words and phrases we have just seen are prepositions. Prepositions describe where something is in relation to something else. In Welsh, the joining word yn seen in sentences such as Mae Richard yn hapus is never used before prepositions: Mae Richard o flaen y tyˆ.
  • The words esgusodwch fi, ewch, trowch , and cerddwch in Deialog 1 are all examples of commands. Commands are formed by adding the ending -wch to the stem of a verb–noun. All verb–nouns have stems. The stem of a verb–noun is usually formed by dropping the last vowel, e.g. the stem of the verb–noun canu is can-, and the stem of the verb–noun gweithio is gweithi-. From now on in the course, all the stems of verb–nouns will be placed in brackets by the side of the verb–nouns in the vocabulary lists. As you can see from the vocabulary in Dialogue 1 above, the stem of the verb–noun cyrraedd is cyrhaedd-, therefore the command form is cyrhaeddwch! - Arrive! Cyrhaeddwch cyn pump! - Arrive before five! There are some irregular commands. Verb–noun Command English Command (fam.) mynd ewch! go! cer! (fam.) dod dewch! come! dere! (fam.) bod byddwch! be! bydd! (fam.) gwneud gwnewch do! make! gwna! (fam.) The command form for a person that you address using the ti forms is the stem of the verb–noun: darllen (darllen-) Darllen y llyfr! - Read the book! In the case of verb–nouns formed from adjectives or nouns and verb–nouns whose stems end in -i, add -a to the stem to form the ti command: canu (can-) Cana yn yr eglwys! - Sing in the church! The word following a command mutates softly: Prynwch ddillad newydd! - Buy new clothes! Dysgwch Gymraeg! - Learn Welsh! The answers to these commands are gwnaf (yes, I will) and na wnaf (no, I won’t): Ewch i’r llyfrgell! Gwnaf! Yfwch lai o goffi! Na wnaf! The answer to a command beginning byddwch is byddaf (yes, I will be) or na fydda (no, I won’t be): Byddwch yn dawel! Byddaf! Byddwch yn dawel! Na fyddaf!
  • Ble mae’r caffi agosaf? You saw in Unit 6 how to compare two things by adding the ending -ach. The superlative (-est in English) is formed by adding the ending -af. Remember that the final ‘f’ is usually dropped in spoken Welsh. The same adjectives which have irregular comparative degrees also have irregular superlative degrees: da ? gorau Hi yw’r orau - She is the best. drwg ? gwaethaf Pwy yw’r - Who is the worst? gwaethaf? mawr ? mwyaf Hon yw’r ystafell - This is the biggest. fwyaf yn y ty - room in the house. bach ? lleiaf Daniel yw’r lleiaf - Daniel is the smallest. uchel ? uchaf Yr Wyddfa yw’r - Snowdon is the. mynydd uchaf - highest mountain. isel ? isaf Honna yw’r - That is the lowest lefel isaf. level. As you can see from these examples, when you are using the superlative, the order of the sentence is changed. The thing you are describing comes first. Longer adjectives use mwyaf to form the superlative: Fe yw’r mwyaf anobeithiol. Dydd Sul oedd y diwrnod mwyaf cymylog - He is the most hopeless. Sunday was the most cloudy day. If the adjective ends in g, b , or d , these letters become c, p , and t when the ending -af is added: enwog ? enwocaf Fe yw actor enwocaf Cymru - He is Wales’ most famous actor. gwlyb ? gwlypaf Heddiw yw’r diwrnod gwlypaf - Today is the wettest day. drud ? drutaf Hwnna yw’r drutaf - That one is the most expensive. If you are referring to a singular feminine noun, the superlative mutates softly after y: Sali yw’r fwyaf. Rh and ll never mutate after y: honna yw’r rhataf.
  • The past tense of regular verbs is formed by adding the past endings to the stem of the verb. The past endings are as follows: -ais i, -on ni -aist ti, -och chi, -odd e, -on nhw, -odd hi. dysgais i - I learned, dysgon ni - we learned, dysgaist ti - you learned, dysgoch chi - you learned, dysgodd e/hi - he/she learned, dysgon nhw - they learned. The direct object in a sentence is that which receives the action of the verb. It usually follows the verb. In the sentence ‘I read a book’, ‘a book’ is the direct object. The direct object of a short-form verb in Welsh is mutated softly: Darllenais i lyfr. You have seen examples of this in earlier units: Gaf i goffi?; Hoffwn i fynd. A short-form verb is one which is formed by an ending being added to the stem. Darllenais i is a short-form verb, whereas Dw i’n darllen and Roedd hi’n darllen are long-form verbs as no stem has been added. The verbs following do not express the past tense by having an ending placed on the stem. Instead, the imperfect tense of bod (see Unit 11) is used: poeni - to worry, roedd hi’n poeni - she worried, gwybod - to know, roedd hi’n gwybod - she knew, adnabod - to know (a person), roedd hi’n adnabod Sue - she knew Sue, credu - to believe, roedd e’n credu’r dyn - he believed the man, gobeithio - to hope, roedd e’n gobeithio - he hoped, meddwl - to think, roedd e’n meddwl - he thought, byw - to live, roedd e’n byw yn Llambed - he lived in Lampeter. There are two words for 'to know' in Welsh, gwybod and nabod. Gwybod means to know a fact: Maen nhw’n gwybod ble mae’r orsaf dân. Nabod means to know a person: Dych chi’n nabod Maer Llanberis? - Do you know the mayor of Llanberis? Nabod is the spoken form; the written form is adnabod.
  • Earlier in this unit you learned about the direct object of short-form verbs. If the direct object of a short-form verb is definite (see Unit 4), it is preceeded by the preposition o: Welais i ddim car - I didn’t see a car. Welais i ddim o’r car - I didn’t see the car. Theimlais i ddim poen - I didn’t feel any pain. Theimlais i ddim o’r boen - I didn’t feel the pain. Chlywais i ddim ci - I didn’t hear a dog. Chlywais i ddim o’r ci - I didn’t hear the dog. Phrynais i ddim llyfr - I didn’t buy a book. Phrynais i ddim o’r llyfr - I didn’t buy the book. In everyday speech, ddim o becomes contracted to mo: Phrynais i mo’r llyfr. You will have noticed that some verb–nouns are followed by certain prepositions, for instance cwrdd â, to meet, ymweld â, to visit, edrych ar, to look at. These are discussed in greater detail in Unit 15. If the verb–noun in the sentence is followed by a particular preposition, mo is not used. Ymwelais i ddim â fy mam - I didn’t visit my mother. Edrychais i ddim ar y teledu - I didn’t watch the television. Many prepositions in Welsh decline. You have seen an example of this when you learned the pattern mae rhaid iddo fe. The preposition i declined before fe, hi and nhw (iddo fe, iddi hi, iddyn nhw). Here are the forms of the preposition o: ohono i of me Welodd e ddim ohono i - He didn’t see me. ohonot ti of you Welodd e ddim ohonot ti - He didn’t see you. ohono fe of him Welodd e ddim ohono fe - He didn’t see him/it. ohoni hi - of her. Welodd e ddim ohoni hi - He didn’t see her/it. ohonon ni of us Welodd e ddim ohonon ni - He didn’t see us. ohonoch chi of you Welodd e ddim ohonoch chi - He didn’t see you. ohonyn nhw of them Welodd e ddim ohonyn nhw - He didn’t see them. The word wrth also declines. You will have noticed in Deialog 2 that Tom said ‘ffoniais i hi neithiwr i ddweud wrthi hi’ (I phoned her last night to tell her). Dweud wrth means 'to tell to'. Look at the forms of the preposition wrth: wrtho i Dwedodd e wrtho i - He told me. wrthot ti Dwedodd e wrthot ti - He told you. wrtho fe Dwedodd hi wrtho fe - She told him. wrthi hi Dwedais i wrthi hi - I told her. wrthon ni Dwedon nhw wrthon ni - They told us. wrthoch chi Dwedon ni wrthoch chi - We told you. wrthyn nhw Dwedaist ti wrthyn nhw - You told them.
  • The Welsh word for year is blwyddyn (f.): y flwyddyn nesaf - next year, yr ail flwyddyn - the second year. The plural of blwyddyn is blynyddoedd: am flynyddoedd - for years, blynyddoedd yn ôl - years ago. After numbers, the word blynedd is used when you are talking about time and the word blwydd is used if you are referring to someone’s age. Time Age dwy flynedd (two years) dwy flwydd (two years) tair blynedd tair blwydd pedair blynedd pedair blwydd pum mlynedd pum mlwydd chwe blynedd chwe blwydd saith mlynedd saith mlwydd wyth mlynedd wyth mlwydd naw mlynedd naw mlwydd deg mlynedd deg mlwydd can mlynedd can mlwydd (hundred years). Ers faint dych chi’n byw - For how long have you lived, ym Mhontypridd? - in Pontypridd?, Dw i’n byw ym Mhontypridd - I have lived in Pontypridd for, ers deg mlynedd - 10 years. The present tense is used with ‘ers’. Numbers over 10 usually use the pattern … o flynyddoedd: dau ddeg pump o flynyddoedd.
  • In Unit 8, you learned the past tense of regular verbs. Deialog 1 has examples of some of the five irregular verbs in Welsh: Mynd Dod, Gwneud Cael, Bod es i, des i gwnes i, ces i bues i - (I went), (I came), (I did, I made), (I got, had), (I was). est ti dest ti gwnest ti cest ti buest ti aeth e/hi daeth e/hi gwnaeth e/hi cafodd e/hi buodd e/hi aethon ni daethon ni gwnaethon ni cawson ni buon ni aethoch chi daethoch chi gwnaethoch chi cawsoch chi buoch chi aethon nhw daethon nhw gwnaethon nhw cawson nhw buon nhw. Question forms, as in the case of regular verbs, are expressed by using the appropriate soft mutation on the verb where applicable: Ddaethon nhw yn y car? - Did they come in the car?, Wnaeth e’r bwyd? - Did he make the food?, Gawsoch chi fath neithiwr? - Did you have a bath last night? The forms of dod, gwneud and bod mutate softly in the negative, whereas cael, as with all other verb–nouns beginning with t, c or p, takes an aspirate mutation: Chawson ni ddim cyfle - We had no opportunity. Ddaethon nhw ddim yn fy nghar - They didn’t come in my car. Wnaeth e mo’r te - He didn’t make the tea. In Welsh ‘to take’ and ‘to bring’ are mynd â and dod â respectively. Mynd and dod conjugate as normal in this context. An aspirate mutation follows â : Dewch â photel - Bring a bottle. Es i â’r llyfr yn ôl i’r llyfrgell - I took the book back to the library. You will sometimes hear the word fe (mi in the north) in front of verbs in Welsh. Mi/fe causes the soft mutation: Fe ges i/mi ges i. Fe/mi is never used before a question, a negative or the present tense and does not change the meaning in any way.
  • ‘That’: Mae Tom yn meddwl bod Elen yn edrych yn ifanc - Tom thinks that Elen looks young. Sylweddolais i fod y batri’n fflat - I noticed that the battery was flat. Mae e’n dweud bod eira ar yr heol - He says that there is snow on the road. Dw i’n credu y bydd hi’n sych yfory - I think that it will be dry tomorrow. ‘That’ in sentences such as these is expressed as bod when you are referring to the past or present and y when you are using the future (Units 14 and 15) and conditional (Unit 18) tenses. In grammatical terms this ‘that’ clause is known as the nominative clause. There are different forms for ‘that I am’, ‘that they are’ etc.: fy mod i - that I am/was, ein bod ni - that we are/were, dy fod di - that you are/were, eich bod chi - that you are/were, ei fod e - that he is/was, eu bod nhw - that they are/were, ei bod hi - that she was/is, Dw i’n credu fy mod i’n iawn - I think that I am right. Dwedodd e dy fod di’n egnïol - He said that you were energetic. Roeddwn i’n meddwl ei fod e’n hapus - I thought that he was happy. Clywon ni ei bod hi’n mynd i fwrw - We heard that it was going to rain. Dwedodd pawb ein bod ni’n dda - Everyone said that we were good. Dw i’n credu eich bod chi wedi pasio - I think that you have passed. Mae hi’n gobeithio eu bod nhw’n colli - She hopes that they lose.
  • There are two words that mean ,when, in Welsh. Pryd is used when you are asking a question: Pryd dych chi’n mynd? - When are you going?. Pan, which is a conjunction, a word such as ‘and’, ‘because’ and ‘although’, links clauses or sentences together: Roedd Tom yn hapus pan ddaeth y gohebydd - Tom was happy when the reporter came.
  • When an illness affects a particular part of the body, the possession construction described in Unit 3 is used: Mae pen tost ‘da fi - I have a headache. When an illness affects the whole body, an idiomatic construction involving the preposition ar is used: Mae annwyd arna i - I have a cold. The one exception to this rule is y ddannodd: Mae’r ddannodd ar Alun - Alun has toothache.
  • Tost literally means ill or sick, and like all adjectives mutates after a feminine singular noun, such as clust or coes.
  • Oddi ar is made up of two prepositions, o and ar, and literally means ‘from on’. It is used when somebody or something comes down from somewhere, e.g. Mae’r esgid ar y gwely. Mae’r esgid wedi cwympo oddi ar y gwely. Mynd at/mynd i both mean ‘to go to’. Mynd at is used if you are going to see a person and mynd i is used if you are going somewhere. Dw i ddim yn mynd at y meddyg yn aml - I don’t go to see the doctor very often. Mae hi wedi mynd i Lambed - She has gone to Lampeter.
  • The original meaning of cilydd was companion: aeth e gyda’i gilydd, therefore originally meant 'he went with his companion'. Initially ei gilydd was the only form used; this was eventually extended to include eich and eu but the original mutation remained.
  • Cartref (home), gartref (at home), adref (homewards). Notice the difference in the use of these three words: Mae hi’n gweithio mewn cartref hen bobl - She works in an old people’s home. Oes rhywun gartref? - Is there someone at home? Cerddais i adref wrth fy hunan - I walked home by myself. Cartref is used when talking about a home and is a popular house name. Gartref means ‘at home’ and adref is usually used when describing movements towards the home and usually follows a verb which describes movement: mynd adref, dod adref, rhedeg adref.
  • As with the present tense (Unit 5), there are different answer forms in the imperfect tense: oeddwn - yes, I was; nac oeddwn - no, I wasn’t; oeddet - yes, you were; nac oeddet - no, you weren’t; oedd - yes, he/she/it was; nac oedd - no, he/she/it wasn’t; oedden - yes, we were nac oedden no, we weren’t oeddech yes, you were; nac oeddech - no, you weren’t; oedden - yes, they were; nac oedden - no, they weren’t. Don’t forget that the third person singular is used with plural nouns in all tenses: Mae’r bechgyn yn drist iawn - The boys are very sad; Roedd y bechgyn yn drist iawn - The boys were very sad; Crïodd y bechgyn - The boys cried.
  • When something is done to something or someone, Welsh uses the verb cael where English uses the verb ‘to be’, or ‘to get’ in some dialects: Mae fy lawnt yn cael ei thorri bob dydd Sul - My lawn is cut (gets cut) every Sunday (lit. ‘my lawn has its cutting’), Roedden nhw’n cael eu talu bob mis - They were paid every month (lit. ‘they got their paying every month’), Ble cawsoch chi eich geni? - Where were you born? (lit. ‘where did you have your birth?’). As you can see from these examples, cael is followed by forms of the possessive pronoun. Sentences such as these, where the subject receives the action of the verb, but does not actually do the action itself (ces i fy ngeni - I was born, i.e. I was not giving birth myself), are said to be in the passive voice. Compare the following two sentences: Lladdodd y ci y gath - The dog killed the cat (active – the subject of the sentence [ y ci ] is doing the killing) Cafodd y ci ei ladd - The dog was killed (passive – the subject of the sentence [ y ci ] is being killed, and not doing the killing).
  • Aar eich pen eich hunan - on your own . Note the forms of this idiom, on one’s own: ar fy mhen fy hunan - on my own, ar dy ben dy hunan - on your own (fam.), ar ei ben ei hunan - on his own, ar ei phen ei hunan - on her own, ar ein pen ein hunain - on our own, ar eich pen eich hunan/hunain - on your own, ar eu pen eu hunain - on their own.
  • Dw i byth yn datgelu cyfrinachau - I never reveal secrets. You have already seen the word erioed which means ever/never when used with the past tense and wedi in Unit 11. Byth means ever/never when used with all the other tenses. You will see the future tense in Units 14 and 15 and the conditional tense in Unit 18. Here is a list of some examples of byth with the present and imperfect tense: Dw i byth yn gwisgo het - I never wear a hat. Dyw ei gwaith byth yn undonog - Her work is never monotonous. Doeddwn i byth yn cadw’n heini - I never used to keep fit. Doedd e byth yn ymlacio - He never used to relax. Cymru am byth! - Wales for ever!
  • Ces i fy ngeni ym mis Ionawr - I was born in January. In front of the letter ‘m’ yn (in) becomes ym.
  • Ble/lle Ble is used to ask a question: Ble cawson nhw eu geni? Whereas lle is a conjunction, which links parts of the sentence together: Dyna’r siop lle cafodd yr arian ei ddwyn - That is the shop where the money was stolen . Neb (no one) is never used with ddim in a sentence: Doedd Ann ddim yn gwybod - Ann didn’t know. Doedd neb yn gwybod - No one knew. Doedd neb yn hollol siwˆr - No one was completely certain. Does neb yno - There is no one there. Chafodd neb ei anafu - No one was injured.
  • Bu is the literary form of buodd , but you will hear it in everyday phrases such as bu farw (died). You have already seen that sy’n can mean which is/who is in sentences like: Dw i’n nabod rhywun sy’n dathlu ei ben-blwydd heddiw - I know someone who is celebrating his birthday today. Sy’n is only used in the present tense, with all other tenses a ( who/which ) is used: Dw i’n nabod rhywun a oedd yn dathlu ei ben-blwydd heddiw - I know someone who was celebrating his birthday today. Dw i’n nabod rhywun a fydd yn dathlu ei ben-blwydd yfory - I know someone who will be celebrating his birthday tomorrow. Dw i’n nabod rhywun a aeth i’r Almaen ar ei wyliau - I know someone who went to Germany on his holidays. As you can see, a causes the soft mutation: Cafodd y fenyw a gafodd hyd i gorff ei chariad ei chyhuddo o’i ladd - The woman who found her boyfriend’s body was accused of killing him. In everyday speech, a tends to be dropped, but the mutation it causes still remains. Ble mae’r ci laddodd y gath? Where is the dog that killed the cat? In the negative, the word na replaces a, nad being used before vowels: Dw i’n nabod rhywun nad oedd yn hapus yn y dosbarth heddiw. Dych chi wedi clywed oddi wrth y dyn na ddaeth i’r arholiad. Na causes a soft mutation. Words beginning with c, t, and p are subject to the aspirate mutation: Ble mae’r dyn na chafodd ei anafu? - Where is the man who wasn’t hurt?
  • Dal i/o hyd. You will have noticed these two words in Deialog 1; both are used to say that something or someone is still doing something. Dal i is used before a verb: Dw i’n dal i fyw ym Mhentrefoelas , and o hyd comes at the end of the sentence Dw i’n byw ym Mhentrefoelas o hyd.
  • There are two words in Welsh for ‘day’ and two words for ‘night’. Diwrnod is used when you are referring to the whole day’s length and is also used after numbers, e.g. diwrnod o waith, diwrnod gwael, tri diwrnod. Dydd refers to a particular day of the week or year, Dydd Llun, Dydd Calan (New Year’s Day) and is also used in adverbs bob dydd, trwy’r dydd (all day). Noson and nos follow the same pattern as diwrnod and dydd, e.g. noson o gwsg, noson wael, dwy noson ; Nos Lun, Nos Galan, bob nos, trwy’r nos.
  • In Deialog 1, you will see further examples of the future tense verb gallu: galla i - I can; gallwn ni - we can; gelli di - you can; gallwch chi - you can; gall e/hi - he/she can; gallan nhw - they can. As with all verbs in Welsh, the question and negative forms mutate softly: Allwn ni fynd? - Can we go? Allan nhw ddim aros - They can’t stay. The future tense of regular verbs is formed in Welsh by adding the following endings to the stem of the verb–noun in the same way that past endings were added in Unit 8. The future tense endings are as follows: -a i, -wn ni, -i di, -wch chi, -iff e/-hi, -an nhw. dysga i - I will learn; dysgwn ni - we will learn; dysgu di - you will learn; dysgwch chi - you will learn; dysgiff e/hi - he/she will learn; dysgan nhw - they will learn. As with the past tense, the verb is mutated softly to ask a question: Brynwch chi docyn? Will you buy a ticket? Verbs whose initial letter is b, d, g, ll, m, rh form the negative by using the soft mutation and adding ddim: Ddathlan nhw ddim - They won’t celebrate. Weliff hi ddim ffilm - She won’t see a film. Verbs whose initial letter is c, p, or t form the negative by using the aspirate mutation: Phryna i ddim tocyn - I won’t buy a ticket. Also, in Deialog 1 you will see examples of the future tense of the verb–noun bod. The forms are as follows: bydda i - I will be; byddwn ni - we will be; byddi di - you will be; byddwch chi - you will be; bydd e/hi - he/she will be; byddan nhw - they will be. Once again there is a soft mutation on question and negative forms: Fyddwch chi’n mynd yn y car? - Will you be going in the car? Fyddan nhw ddim yn hapus - They will not be happy. Questions are answered with the appropriate form of the person without the accompanying pronoun: Fydd e’n iawn? Bydd. An answer is made negative by na which is followed by a soft mutation: Fyddan nhw yno? Na fyddan.
  • A (SM) (whether) is often omitted in everyday speech but the mutation it causes remains: Dw i ddim yn siwˆr - I’m not sure yet whether; eto a fydd e yno - he’ll be there. Dw i ddim yn siwˆr eto fydd e yno. Os oes car ‘da chi. In the present tense, os is followed by either ydy/yw or oes. Oes is used with indefinite nouns and ydy/yw with definite nouns: os yw’r car ‘da chi - if you have the car; os yw car eich tad ‘da chi - if you have your father ‘s car; os oes car ‘da chi - if you have a car. The forms after the imperfect and future are os oedd and os bydd. Os bydd is often used where you would use the present tense in English: Os bydd hi’n braf, bydd pawb yn mynd i’r traeth - If it is fine (will be fine), everyone will go to the beach.
  • Yn gywir is the usual way to end a formal letter. If you are writing an informal letter, you would write cofion. Mr J Powell 34, Stryd y Bont Llanddewi Gwynedd 30 Mawrth 2003 Annwyl Syr/Fadam, Diolch am y manylion am eich gwesty a ddaeth y bore ‘ma. Hoffwn i i chi gadw un ystafell ddwbl ar gyfer fy ngwraig a fi ac un ystafell sengl ar gyfer ein mab. Byddwn ni’n aros tair noson, o 19 Ebrill–21 Ebrill a byddwn ni’n mynd ar ôl brecwast ar yr ail ar hugain. Hoffwn i i chi drefnu llety llawn i ni. Amgaeaf flaendal o gan punt. Yn gywir James Powell.
  • Olaf and diwethaf. These are two words for 'last'. Diwethaf is used in the sense of the last in a list: Doedd dim lle y tro diwethaf - There was no room last time. Olaf is used in the sense of final: yr wythnos olaf ym mis Awst - the (last) final week in August.
  • In Unit 14 you learned the future tense of regular verbs in Welsh. Deialog 1 has examples of the irregular verbs which are listed in full in the following table. As you can see, mynd, gwneud and cael follow a similar pattern, while dod is slightly different. Mynd Gwneud Cael Dod af i gwnaf i caf i dof i ei di gwnei di cei di doi di aiff e/hi gwnaiff e/hi caiff e/hi daw e/hi awn ni gwnawn ni cawn ni down ni ewch chi gwnewch chi cewch chi dewch chi ân nhw gwnân nhw cân nhw dôn nhw. Once again question forms are expressed by using the appropriate soft mutation on the verb where applicable. Wnaiff e’r swper heno? - Will he make the supper tonight? Gawn ni fynd i’r parti nos yfory? - May we go to the party tomorrow night? Ddôn nhw cyn y Nadolig? - Will they come before Christmas? As in the past tense, dod and gwneud mutate softly in the negative, whereas cael, like all other verb–nouns beginning with t, c or p, takes the aspirate mutation: Chaiff e ddim amser heno - He won’t get time tonight. Ddown ni ddim i’r cyngerdd nawr - We won’t come to the concert now. Questions are answered with the appropriate form of the person without the accompanying pronoun. The verb forms of gwneud are used to answer questions using mynd, gwneud and the regular future verbs. Cael and Dod use their own verb-forms. Wnaiff e’r gwaith? - Will he do the work? Gwnaiff/na wnaiff. - Yes, he will/no, he won’t. Ddôn nhw yn ôl? - Will they come back? Dôn/na ddôn - Yes, they will come/no, they won’t come. Gaf i fynd? - May I go? Cewch/na chewch. Yes, you may/no, you may not. Brynwch chi docyn? - Will you buy a ticket? Gwnaf/na wnaf - Yes, I will/no I won’t. Aiff e ar y trên? - Will he go on the train? Gwnaiff/na wnaiff - Yes, he will/no he won’t.
  • A number of expressions of time are included in Deialog 2, many of which you will already be familiar with. Do take particular note of the following: Past, Present, Future, ddoe heddiw yfory bore ddoe y bore ‘ma bore yfory neithiwr heno nos yfory yr wythnos diwethaf yr wythnos ‘ma yr wythnos nesaf llynedd eleni y flwyddyn nesaf.
  • In all three dialogues in this unit you will have come across the compound preposition o gwmpas. A compound preposition is one that consists of two elements. As you have seen in earlier units in this course, o causes a soft mutation and therefore cwmpas becomes gwmpas.
  • glasaid o win coch. When -aid is added on to a noun, it renders the meaning ‘full of’: plataid o sglodion - a plateful of chips; llwyaid o siwgr - a spoonful of sugar; potelaid o laeth - a bottle of milk, etc.
  • Cymreig is an adjective used to describe things pertaining to Wales, whereas Cymraeg is used to describe objects in the Welsh language: llyfr Cymraeg - a book in Welsh; caws Cymreig - cheese made in Wales.
  • Dwlu ar means to love, but you wouldn’t use it to describe how you feel about a loved one. It is normally used where you would say 'I love chips' or 'I love swimming'. When used about a person, it means to infatuate.
  • Deialog 1 contains several examples of the conditional tense (would) of the verb bod. The forms in full are: byddwn i - I would; bydden ni - we would; byddet ti - you would; byddech chi - you would; byddai fe - he would; bydden nhw - they would; byddai hi - she would. byddai’r teulu - the family would; Byddai fe wrth ei fodd - He would be in his element; Bydden nhw’n siomedig iawn - They would be very disappointed. Once again, note the soft mutation in the negative and question forms: Fyddet ti ddim yn gallu mynd - You wouldn’t be able to go; Fydden nhw’n fodlon i chi ddod? - Would they be willing for you to come? Questions are answered with the appropriate form of the person without the accompanying pronoun. Fyddai hi ar gael? - Would she be available? Byddai - Yes (she would). Fydden ni’n hwyr? - Would we be late? Na fydden - No (we wouldn’t).
  • Apart from hoffi and gallu, which are conjugated later on, most conditional verbs are formed using byddwn i and its related forms followed by the link-word yn and the relevant verb–noun. I would say: Byddwn i’n siarad.
  • You have already seen I/you would like and I/you could in earlier units. Here are the complete conditional tense forms of the two verbs hoffi and gallu : hoffwn i - I would like; hoffen ni - we would like; hoffet ti - you would like; hoffech chi - you would like; hoffai fe/hi - he/she would like; hoffen nhw - they would like; Hoffen ni fynd yno un diwrnod - We would like to go there some day. gallwn i - I could; gallen ni - we could; gallet ti - you could; gallech chi - you could; gallai fe/hi - he/she could; gallen nhw - they could; Allech chi ddim gofyn eto - You could not ask again. As you have seen with other tenses, questions are answered with the appropriate form of the person without the accompanying pronoun. Hoffai fe ddod? - Would he like to come? Na hoffai - No, he would not like to. Allen nhw ddod? - Could they come? Gallen - Yes, they could.
  • Ought/should is expressed in Welsh using the verb dylai. The forms in full are: dylwn i - I ought to/should; dylen ni - we ought to/should; dylet ti - you ought to/should; dylech chi - you ought to/should; dylai fe/hi - he/she ought to/should; dylen nhw - they ought to/should. Dylwn i fynd nawr efallai - I ought to go now, maybe. Dylech chi ofyn iddi hi - You should ask her. As you can see from Deialog 3, ‘should have’ is expressed by adding bod wedi: Dylet ti fod wedi dweud wrthon ni - You should have told us. Once again note the soft mutation in the negative and question forms: Ddylen ni ddim bod wedi chwerthin - We shouldn’t have laughed. Ddylwn i ddweud rhywbeth? - Should I say something? Questions are answered with the appropriate personal form without the accompanying pronoun: Ddylen ni ofyn am help? - Should we ask for help? Dylen - Yes, we should. Ddylech chi orffen heno? Should you finish tonight? Dylwn - Yes, I should.
  • The Welsh word for o’clock is o’r gloch. When telling the time on the hour, the traditional numbers are used for 11 (un ar ddeg) and 12 (deuddeg). M ae’n un ar ddeg o’r gloch - It is 11 o’clock; Mae’n ddeuddeg o’r gloch - It is 12 o’clock. Like the weather, time is feminine and therefore hi is used in sentences such as ‘It is three o’clock’ – Mae hi’n dri o’r gloch. In everyday conversation, this is contracted to Mae’n dri o’r gloch. The Welsh word for ‘past’ in relation to time is wedi. Mae’n ddeg munud wedi tri - It is ten past three. Am is also used with expressions of time to mean ‘at’: Am faint o’r gloch? - At what time? Cyrhaeddais i am hanner awr wedi deuddeg - I arrived at half past twelve.
  • As with dates, the traditional numbering system is used with the time. Un ar ddeg, deuddeg, ugain and pump ar hugain are used for 11, 12, 20 and 25. Ugain becomes hugain after ar in the phrase pum munud ar hugain.
  • Awr is feminine and therefore the feminine forms of the numbers are used dwy awr, tair awr, pedair awr. The word for minute, munud, is feminine in South Wales and masculine in North Wales: North Wales South Wales un munud un funud dau funud dwy funud tri munud tair munud.
  • Byddwn ni’n hwyrach byth - We will be later than ever. To express phrases like ‘colder than ever’, ‘earlier than ever’ in Welsh, byth is used with the comparative degree of the adjective. You met the comparative degree in Unit 6: Bydd hi’n oerach byth pan ddaw’r gaeaf - It will be colder than ever when winter comes. Mae prisiau tai’n uwch byth yng Nghaerdydd - House prices are higher than ever in Cardiff.
  • You have already seen the nominative, or ‘that’ clause, expressed using bod in the present and imperfect tense and y in the future and conditional tense in Unit 9: Clywais i ei fod e’n gwella - I heard that he is getting better. Clywais i ei fod e wedi gwella - I heard that he had got better. Clywais i y bydd e’n gwella- I heard that he will get better. Clywais i y byddai fe’n gwella - I heard that he would get better. Mae rhaid bod siawns ‘da ti o gael un o’r swyddi - You must have a chance of getting one of the jobs. In Welsh, a sentence like ‘You must have a chance’, ‘He must be very proud’, ‘Someone must know’ is expressed using mae rhaid + a nominative clause: Mae rhaid ei fod e’n falch iawn, Mae rhaid bod rhywun yn gwybod.
  • Rhyngddon ni. As you saw in Unit 15, prepositions decline in Welsh. Rhyngddon ni is an example of another preposition which declines. The full forms are: rhyngddo i - between me; rhyngddon ni - between us; rhyngddot ti - between you; rhyngddoch chi - between you rhyngddo fe - between him; rhyngddyn nhw - between them; rhyngddi hi - between her. As you can see in Deialog 2, other particles of speech are followed by bod: Achos (because): Achos fy mod i’n hoffi gwneud pethau tipyn yn wahanol i’r arfer - Because I like doing things that are slightly different from the norm. Er (although): Er fy mod i wedi neidio o awyren gyda pharasiwt - Although I have jumped from an aeroplane with a parachute. Gan (since): Gan fod popeth drosodd mor gyflym - Since everything is/was over so quickly. Efallai (perhaps): Efallai ei bod hi’n iawn - Perhaps she is right.
  • Gobeithio na fydd rhaid i fi aros yn hir cyn cael rhan debyg - I hope that I won’t have to wait long before getting a similar part. Na introduces a negative ‘that’ clause. Na becomes nad in front of a vowel and is followed by the conjugated form of the verb: Gobeithio nad yw e’n hwyr - I hope that he is not late. Dwedon nhw nad oedd e’n hwyr - They said that he was not late. Efallai na fydd e’n cyrraedd tan heno - Perhaps he will not arrive until tonight. Gan na fydden nhw yno - Since they wouldn’t be there. Often in everyday speech you will hear a ‘that’ clause negated using ddim : Gobeithio ei fod e ddim yn hwyr - I hope that he isn’t late. Dwedon nhw ei fod e ddim yn hwyr - They said that he wasn’t late.
  • Ti oedd eisiau dod (You wanted to come). You saw the structure of the basic Welsh sentence in Unit 1: Verb Subject Yn Verb-noun/adjective mae Gethin yn chwarae/hapus. You have also seen that the link word yn is not used with prepositions: Mae Richard o flaen y tyˆ. It is possible to place any of the parts of a sentence at the beginning of that sentence for emphasis. Compare the two sentences: Mae hi’n canu and Canu mae hi. The first sentence uses the traditional sentence structure and no emphasis is implied. The second sentence stresses that she is singing. Ffraeo roedden nhw - They were arguing. Ar y llawr maen nhw - They are on the floor. Yfory dôn nhw - They will come tomorrow. A sentence in which one of the parts is emphasized is known as an emphatic sentence. As you can see from these examples, the link word yn is not used in an emphatic sentence. If the subject or the object of a sentence is placed first, the verb of that sentence is always in the third person singular: Fi aeth i’r cyfarfod - I went to the meeting. Gwen a Gethin fwytodd y siocledi - Gwen and Gethin ate the chocolates. Nhw dorrodd y ffenest - They broke the window. As you can see from the preceding examples, when the subject or object of a sentence is placed first, the verb following them is softly mutated. In the present tense, sydd (sy) is used to emphasize the subject. Tom sy’n briod â Glenys - Tom is married to Glenys. Titanic sy’n cael ei dangos heno - Titanic is being shown tonight.
  • The replies to emphatic questions are ie (yes) and nage (no): Chi wnaeth y llanast ‘ma? Ie, mae’n ddrwg ‘da fi. Chi ddaeth â’r bwyd? Nage, Elen ddaeth â fe. On’d ife is a ‘tag’ which can be added to an emphatic sentence. It translates as ‘isn’t it’, ‘wasn’t it’, ‘won’t they’ etc., depending on the tense of the sentence: Hi aeth i’r dafarn on’d ife? - She went to the pub, didn’t she? Pontypridd enilliff on’d ife? - Pontypridd will win, won’t they? Ni ddylai benderfynu on’d ife? - We should decide, shouldn’t we? Emphatic sentences are negated using nid: Nid dydd Mawrth mae hi’n dod - She’s not coming on Tuesday. Nid wrth y tân roedden nhw - They weren’t by the fire. In everyday conversation you will also hear dim: Dim wrth y tân roedden nhw. You have already seen ‘I should have’ in Unit 18. Bod wedi is also used with gallu and hoffi to say ‘I could have’, ‘he would have liked to’ etc.: Gallech chi fod wedi ffonio - You could have phoned. Hoffwn i fod wedi dysgu Eidaleg - I would have liked to have learned Italian.
  • You should now be familiar with the nominative or ‘that’ clause. Emphatic sentences use the word mai to introduce the nominative clause: Fe atebodd y ffôn - He answered the phone. Dw i’n gwybod mai fe atebodd y ffôn - I know that he answered the phone. Roeddwn i’n credu mai dydd - I thought that Friday was the end, Gwener oedd diwedd y cwrs - of the course. In South Wales, you will hear the word taw instead of mai.
  • Unman means both anywhere and nowhere depending on context. Look at the following sentences: Fues i ddim yn unman: I wasn’t anywhere; Does unman yn debyg i gartref: There’s nowhere like home.
  • Ar ôl i ti fod yn y gogledd am fis. Ar ôl (after), cyn (before), erbyn (by), ers (since), nes (until) and wrth (as) are all time conjunctions. A verb–noun can be used directly after them: Ar ôl archebu bwyd, talais i am fy niod - After ordering food, I paid for my drink. cyn edrych ar y fwydlen - before looking at the menu. erbyn i’r cwch hwylio o’r porthladd - by the time the boat sailed from the port. ers adnewyddu’r bwthyn - since renovating the cottage. As you can see from the sentence Erbyn i’r cwch hwylio o’r porthladd, if you want to say, after I order food, before he looks at the menu, before the builder renovates the cottage etc., the pattern used is time conjunction + i + subject: Ble aiff e ar ôl iddo fe adael? - Where will he go after he leaves? Dere â dy gwpan cyn i’r tegell ferwi - Bring your cup before the kettle boils. ar ôl i ti roi dy bethau i gadw - after you put your things away. Other phrases following this same pattern are rhag ofn and er mwyn : rhag ofn i fi anghofio - in case I forget; er mwyn i bawb weld - in order for everyone to see.
  • Phrases such as ar ôl i fi gyrraedd etc., which follow the pattern time conjunction + i + subject + verb–noun are known as adverbial clauses. These types of clauses cannot show tense and rely on the preceding clause e.g.: Caewch y drws wrth i chi adael - Close the door as you leave. Caeodd e’r drws wrth iddo fe adael - He closed the door as he left.